Research- Stamp Designs.

I came across this stamp in an old album and recognised the name from the WHA notes.

‘Inigo Jones was the first notable English architect, responsible for introducing the classical architecture of Rome and the Italian Renaissance to Britain.’ accessed 1st July 2018.



It was issued as part of the 400th anniversary of his birth in 1973. Designed by Rosalind Dease it shows the court Masque stage scene.

Go HERE to find out about a fracas involving the designer. HERE to see the other stamps in the set and HERE to see an excellent video of Rosalind Dease showing off her Christmas stamps. I think I might look more into the art of stamps for my final review piece.

Exercise- Researching Humanism.

Did an interest in humanism mean a movement away from Christianity?
How was an interest in the classical world reflected in Renaissance art?
Was it possibly successfully to combine Christian and classical elements in painting, sculpture and architecture?

‘While humanism has several applications (including distinct theological senses, an approach towards learning or culture, or a particular European intellectual movement at its height between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries), the usage relevant to atheism and non-religion is as a system of thought that places humans or humanity as a whole at its centre, especially where only concerned with human interests and welfare.

Humanism engages with several dimensions of philosophy. It may be a purely ethical orientation, stressing human agency (especially through rational capacities); in this form, it can be combined with an array of existential philosophies or beliefs of both theist and atheist types. In contemporary usage, however, humanism frequently implies existential humanism or ‘exclusive humanism’ in particular, which is a philosophy or culture that applies these principles to existential questions through belief or practice. Existential humanism is a form of materialism, one which lays particular emphasis on human achievement and flourishing as an existential value and source of meaning. In this form, humanism is an atheist tradition (frequently explicitly non-theist (2)), also rejecting supernatural claims.

Organised humanism usually espouses and practises existential humanism. Consequently, the term is sometimes associated with formal humanist organisations and activities in particular, or with those which self-identify as humanist. However, existential humanism is also associated with a more widespread and diffuse cultural environment, associated with European post-Enlightenment and modernity. Particular secularisation processes are associated with a concomitant process of humanisation; for example, the shift away from religious subjects is seen to be connected to an increasing interest in and valorisation of the human in the arts over the modern period.’

Bullivant, S., & Lee, L.A Dictionary of Atheism. : Oxford University Press. Retrieved 29 Jun. 2018, from

I have only very brief knowledge of humanism and what it means to be identified as a humanist. I have heard of humanist wedding ceremonies and humanist funerals. Mainly because of  friends who had taken part in them and from what they said I found them to be calming, celebratory and such a change from the traditional religious events I had attended in the past.

Further research brought me to and there is so much information on there about ideas and how to live your life meaningfully and theories that I had never thought of before. In fact I was reading and nodding and agreeing with a lot of it.

Defining ‘Humanism’

Roughly speaking, the word humanist has come to mean someone who;

Trusts to the scientific method when it comes to understanding how the universe works and rejects the idea of the supernatural (and is therefore an atheist or agnostic).

Makes their ethical decisions based on reason, empathy, and a concern for human beings and other sentient animals.

Believes that, in the absence of an afterlife and any discernible purpose to the universe, human beings can act to give their own lives meaning by seeking happiness in this life and helping others to do the same.

As for the Christianity question I am a bit torn. I think from looking further back in time Humanists value the here and now. The traditional religious educations and views were more focused on an end, such as meeting god once you died. I don’t think they were anti to any of this, rather seeing a new way of thinking and that there is something else.

“The Humanists of the Renaissance differed from medieval theologians and others who has studied Aristotle, Cicero and the Neoplatonists. The humanists found in Classical antiquity absolute standards by which cultural and, indeed, all human activities could be judged.” (WHA, p417)

 “There  is a dichotomy rather than a conflict in Renaissance thought between Christianity and humanism which encouraged the enhanced view of the dignity of man and the beauty of the physical world..” (WHA p435)

I found this an interesting piece to listen to;

‘Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss Humanism. On the 3rd January 106 BC Marcus Tullius Cicero, lawyer, politician, Roman philosopher and the founding father of Humanism was born. His academy, the Studia Humanitas taught ‘the art of living well and blessedly through learning and instruction in the fine arts’, his version of ‘humanitas’ put man not God at the centre of the world.Centuries later, Cicero’s teachings had been metamorphosed into ‘Classical Humanism’, a faith in the soft arts of the Greek world. But how did Cicero’s ideas become Renaissance ideals? How did a small Greek curriculum later become a world philosophy? The human centred creed is credited with giving us human rights and democracy but has also been blamed for the most unspeakable horrors of the modern age. Have his ideas been distorted through the centuries for political ends? And why do some contemporary thinkers think the Humanist tradition is responsible for Elitism, Sexism and even Nazism?’


WHA- The Seventeenth Century in Europe.

Political, social and economic factors

The rise of the Dutch republic was the most momentous event in the history of seventeenth century Europe, coinciding with the decline of Spain and the Thirty Years War. (WHA p567)

Western Philosophy was freed from two millennia of dependence on Plato and Aristotle by Rene Descartes, whose discourse method set forward a new theory of knowledge. (WHA p567)

For a time art and thought moved ‘out of phase’. (WHA p567)

‘I think, therefore I am’. (WHA p567)

Dutch painting started to move quickly. (WHA p567)

Rome became a great artistic centre, after the recovery of the papacy. (WHA p568)

Europeans felt a need to impose order on the diversity of people revealed to them by the discoveries of the 15th century. (WHA p577)

The Dutch republic was unique both in art and in intellectual terms. (WHA p591)

English books were translated into Dutch. The English bought Dutch pictures and several Dutch artists sometimes settled in England. (WHA p603)

Changes to status or training of artists

New life was breathed into old forms by two artists from Northern Italy, Carracci and Caravaggio. (WHA p568)

Carracci set up the Academy of the Initiated. (WHA p569)

First Academy of Artists was founded in Florence In 1563. (WHA p569)

Artemisia, the first prominent woman artist in Italy, specialised in scenes where woman played a dominant role. (WHA p578)

Bernini was the first artist to confront Michelangelo’s achievements without flinching. (WHA p580)

Nearly all Dutch artists specialized. A painter of still life would often restrict themselves to a single class of objects. (WHA p601)

Rachel Ruysch was the first woman to achieve international reputation as a major artist. (WHA p601)

A more Italianate style had been introduced early in the century for royal buildings by inigo Jones. (WHA p603)

Development of materials and processes

 The development of graphic processes. (WHA p596)

Easel paintings were mainly bought and brought easel painting to its highest pitch. (WHA p591)

 Styles and movements

Idealism and naturalism, Carracci and Caravaggio. (WHA p567)

Caravaggism spread. (WHA p567)

Quadri riportati. (WHA p567)

Widespread growth of art collecting. (WHA p569)

The formation of academic theory. (WHA p570)

Nature, Imitation and invention. (WHA p570)

Baroque was first used as term of critical abuse. (WHA p571)

Rubens concentrated on the vitality of figures for his paintings. (WHA p573)

Poussin and Claude, distinguished French painters working in Rome.

Poussin claimed to have invented the phrase ‘Et in Arcadia Ego’ ‘I, that is to say death, am present in also in Arcadia’. (WHA p585)

Claude Lorraine spent days observing the monotonous features of landscape. (WHA p587)

Frans Hals regarded as the founder of the Dutch school of painting. (WHA p591)

In the Dutch art world a premium was set on individuality and also on novelty. (WHA p592)

Landscape painting. Aerial perspective, without narration.  (WHA p595)

Inside and outside influences

Carravagism spread throughout Italy, Spain, France and the Netherlands. (WHA p569)

Bernini, Fountain of the Four Rivers. (WHA p583)

Rembrandt was to be unusually responsive to the work of other artists, notably Italians of the renaissance and very exceptionally non- European artists. (WHA p593)

Critics, thinkers and historians

Gianloenzo Bernini, sculptor, architect and painter. (WHA p580)

Francisco Pecheco, the most important Spanish writer on art in the seventeenth century. (WHA p590)

Christopher Wren, mathematician and astronomer. (WHA p603)


Honour, H. and Fleming, J. (2009). A World History of Art. 7th ed. London: Laurence King,

Chapter 13, Pages 567-606.



WHA-Reading-The Sixteenth Century in Europe.

Political, social and economic factors

The great artists finally took their place amongst the great minds of the age. (WHA p457)

The idea that architecture, painting and sculpture were liberal arts rather than branches of craftsmanship were mainly due to Alberti. (WHA p457)

Movement for religious reform, individual conscience and moral authority. (WHA p457)

Luther’s protest was against indulgences to raise money for the rebuilding of St Peters. He wanted the pope to build his own basilica instead of taking money from ‘the faithful poor’. (WHA p458)

Peasants war of 1524-1526. (WHA p463)

The first quarter of the 16th century was one of political stress and almost constant warfare in Italy. (WHA p466)

Medici took control of Papal States. (WHA p481)

Venice remained one of the richest cities in Europe, far richer than any other in Italy. (WHA p485)

Unpaid Spanish and German mercenaries from the imperial army sacked Rome and chased the Pope out of the Vatican. (WHA p483)

Michelangelo paints The Last Judgement above the altar in the Sistine Chapel. (WHA p483)

Nudity in art had come to be indecent, its antique precedents being pagan and its neoplatonic justification heretical. (WHA p484)

The Venetian High Resistance. (WHA p485)

 Changes to status or training of artists

 Sculptures such as ‘the Isenheim altarpiece’ became more prominent in the guise of a corpus which was carved with Gothic tracery. (WHA p462)

Makers of such items were independent artists. (WHA p462)

The emergence of wood-carvers in the second decade of the fifteenth-century marks the beginning of large scale independent sculptural architecture in Northern Europe. (WHA p462)

In protestant countries there was demand for portraits of reformers including Erasmus. (WHA p463)

Study of plants and anatomy and the principles of organic growth led Leonardo to construct his paintings according to a similar system. (WHA p468)

Leonardo opened the eyes of artists to great new possibilities in painting. (WHA p469)

Venetian artists were dependant on public commissions. (WHA p489)

Most sixteenth-century architects were also painters or sculptors. Palladio was unusual as he practiced no other forms of art. (WHA p495)

Mannerist/Mannerism came into use. (WHA p497)

Development of materials and processes

Pictorial painting techniques such as Chiaroscuro, light and dark modulated to create relief or by modelling.

Sfumato, misty soft blending of colours and aerial perspective, which indicates distance by grading tones and muting colour contrasts. (WHA p468)

The quest for the perfect Christian church obsessed Renaissance architects. (WHA p472)

Giorgione made a new technique of painting on the canvas rather than the panel with pigment mixed with oil and flexible resins. (WHA p488)

Styles and movements 

The High Renaissance in Italy. (WHA p466)

Albrecht Altdorfer landscapes, the earliest pure painted landscapes in European art. (WHA p466)

Leonardo da Vinci painted the Last Supper, mural painting, innovatory genius found full expression during the painting and completion of it. (WHA p467)

The Mona Lisa painted in 1503-05. (WHA p468)

Michelangelo’s David, the first nude to be carved on a colossal scale since antiquity. (WHA p476)

Inside and outside influences

Titian- increasingly occupied with secular commissions. (WHA p490)

Sansovino, Palladio and the laws of harmony. (WHA p493)

 Critics, thinkers and historians

Desiderius Erasmus, Humanist, ‘laid the egg that Luther hatched’. (WHA p458)

Giorgio Vasari (1511- 1574) Florentine painter, architect and biographer of artists. (WHA p466)


Honour, H. and Fleming, J. (2009). A World History of Art. 7th ed. London: Laurence King,

Chapter 11, Pages 457-506.



WHA Reading- The Fifteenth Century in Europe.


Political, social and economic factors

Gothic Artists did not know they that were different but the renaissance artist was well aware of who they were. (WHA p416)

Humanists found in classical antiquity, absolute standards by which cultural and all human activities could be and should be judged. (WHA p417)

Humanism was nurtured in Italian city states. (WHA p417)

Rejecting chivalry and nobility, in favour of intellectual ability. (WHA p417)

The 15th century was a golden age of Flemish and Florentine painting and only towards its end did it acquire more prestige. (WHA p417)

Italy and Flanders by the mid 15th century had emerged as the two great centres of European art. (WHA p424)

General economic depression in 15th century Europe. (WHA p424)

The Ghent Altarpiece. (WHA p426)

Van Eyck and other Flemish painters depicted the visible world. (WHA p428)

Changes to status or training of artists

Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472) recognised amongst his Florentine contemporary “not to be ranked below any who is ancient”. He named Brunelleschi, Donatello, Ghiberti, Luca della Robbia and Masaccio. (WHA p416)

Andrea Pazzi, the head of a noble Florentine family, commissioned Brunelleschi to design an addition to the monastery of S Croce. (WHA p418)

Pazzi was the first of a new type of architect. He served no apprenticeship in a masons lodge. He had a liberal education. (WHA p418)

Brunelleschi along with the sculptor Ghiberti provided a joint model for the construction of the dome of Florence Cathedral. (WHA p419)

The invention of Linear Perspective. (WHA p419)

The art of painting was then realised as a science and an imposed order. (WHA p420)

Progress in sculpture with artistic progress being recognised. (WHA p421)

Painters and sculptors encouraged to vie with one another. (WHA p423)

Andrea Pisanos bronze doors used as an art competition to allow artists and sculptors to design a second pair. (WHA p423)

The Florentines were still working on theories whilst the Flemish has linear perspective by trial and error. (WHA p424)

Development of materials and processes

Mediums more luminous than tempera were needed so oil painting was developed further. (WHA p424)

Tempura pigments are bound with egg yolk; artists started to bind pigments with linseed oil and by applying translucent films of paint over opaque doors gave the appearance of depth. (WHA p424)

Flemish artists who developed this technique revolutionised the art of painting. (WHA p424)

Emphasis brought on delicate details and proportion adjustments. (WHA p433)

Bronze statuettes were private but with more secular tastes being introduced they started to become devotional and overtly pagan. (WHA p435)

A tendency towards the illusionistic in 15th century sculpture became apparent outside Florence. (WHA p437)

Piero della Francesca’s interests in mathematical space, optics and illusions used to educate and create stillness. (WHA p440)

 Styles and movements

Italian classical scholars were seen as Humanists in the original meaning of the word. (WHA p416)

Greek and Latin literature continued to be read (WHA p416)

The Humanists relationship with the visual arts is complex and sometimes ambiguous (WHA p417)

Italian Renaissance, Pazzi Chapel, Contemporary, symmetrical forms and giving ideas of space (WHA p417)

The use of glazed terracotta figures, impression that temporal life seems to be set in the pure and eternal. (WHA p417)

The simplest of everyday objects could have meaning in a universe which ‘shone with the radiance of delightful allegories’. (WHA p428)

Flemish painters were admired for their technical accomplishment. (WHA p429)

The Flemish were pre-occupied with ‘natura naturata’ (the created world). (WHA p429)

Palazzo Medici, set a pattern for the design of Florentine town houses. (WHA p430)

A passion for antiquity inspired sculptors as well as architects, Donatello. (WHA p433)

A dichotomy rather than a conflict in renaissance between Christianity and the humanism encourage an enhanced view. (WHA p436)

Throughout the 15th century in Italy the figurative arts remained predominately religious. (WHA p443)

Shortage of precious metals may have diverted goldsmiths to the art of painting. (WHA p444)

Interests in antiquity were complimented by a deeper preoccupation with astrology. (WHA p448)

The art of printing with movable type first developed in Europe in the mid 15th century. (WHA p448)

In the last decades of the 15th century, Italian influence gradually began to infiltrate Europe. (WHA p453)

This style was carried across the continent by illuminated manuscripts of classical text engravings of mythological subjects and printed books. (WHA p453)

Critics, thinkers and historians

Bartolommeo Fazio a humanist scholar from Genoa. One of the first scholars to write about northern painters. (WHA p430)

Leon Battista Alberti–Moralist, lawyer poet, playwright, musician, mathematician and theorist.

Honour, H. and Fleming, J. (2009). A World History of Art. 7th ed. London: Laurence King,

Chapter 10, Pages 416-456.

Exercise- Study some Mythological Subjects.

Choose two or three paintings of a mythological subject and research the story behind these paintings.  Where did the story originate, for example?

Think about how the myths you’ve chosen could be harnessed to promote Christian values.

Find two paintings by different artists that represent the same mythological story and make notes in your learning log on the similarities and differences between them.  Think about why the two artists may have made the different artistic choices that they did. Do some drawings and sketches in your learning log. 

p82-Course notes.

I chose to look at the mythological painting  Perseus turning Phineas and his Followers to Stone. There are various accounts of this myth in various different paintings so I have researched the ones that I liked best and also the story and myth behind it. In the paintings Perseus is holding the Gorgon Medusa’s severed head.

Medusa was one of the three Gorgons, daughters of Phorcys and Ceto, sisters of the Graeae, Echidna, and Ladon – all dreadful and fearsome beasts. A beautiful mortal, Medusa was the exception in the family, until she incurred the wrath of Athena, either due to her boastfulness or because of an ill-fated love affair with Poseidon. Transformed into a vicious monster with snakes for hair, she was killed by Perseus, who afterwards used her still potent head as a weapon, before gifting it to Athena.’ 14th June 2018

Medusa is well-known to me through the film Clash of the Titans and that you must never look into her eyes as she will turn you into stone. This is my interpretation of her but reading more into the story of Medusa it is really quite interesting plus she turns people to stone with a look and has snakes for hair. Cool.


caravaggio-medusa_orig– accessed 14th June 2018
Medusa Murtola by Caravaggio, 1597

This painting of Medusa by Caravaggio is very graphic. You can see her snakes writing

around on her head, blood coming out of her neck as she has just been beheaded and she looks sad that this has happened to her to be honest. The look on her face is as if she has seen Perseus coming towards her but it is too late. The horror in her eyes is shown and her mouth is open as if she is screaming. The painting was made on a shield and looking further into the artist and also the Clash of the Titans Medusa moment it is said that Medusa was staring at a shield that was reflective so maybe she saw herself seconds before she lost her head? Has Caravaggio painted the image on a shield for this reason? I think the green background really brings out the paleness of Medusa’s skin and the snakes that are writhing above her.

‘Immediately after the Gorgon was beheaded, the winged horse Pegasus sprung out from her neck. In the Theogony, Hesiod also mentions that Chrysaos, who was born with a golden sword in his hand, emerged from the severed neck of Medusa. After this, Perseus returns to Seriphus, though not before going on several adventures. Although Perseus may be at the centre of these adventures, it could be argued that it is the trans formative powers of Medusa’s severed head that played a pivotal role in the hero’s subsequent adventures.

When the blood dripped from Medusa’s head onto the plains of Libya, each drop of blood transformed into venomous serpents. The power of Medusa’s head is seen again when Perseus encounters the Titan Atlas. When Perseus asks Atlas for a place to rest for a short while, his request was refused. Knowing that he would not be able to defeat the Titan with brute force alone, he takes out Medusa’s head, and Atlas is turned into a mountain. Perseus also encounters Andromeda, the daughter of the Aethiopian king Cepheus and his wife Cassiopeia. Using Medusa’s head, Perseus succeeds in rescuing the princess, who was being sacrificed to Cetus, a sea monster sent by Poseidon to punish Cassiopeia for boasting that her daughter was more beautiful than the Nereids. Medusa’s petrifying power is also used on Phineus, Andromeda’s uncle whom she was betrothed to, Proetus, the usurper of the throne of Argos, and finally Polydectes himself. Medusa’s head is then given to Athena, who wears it on her aegis whenever she goes into battle.

Although Medusa is commonly regarded as a monster, her head is often seen as a protective amulet that would keep evil away. Thus, the image of Medusa’s head can be seen in numerous Greek and subsequent Roman artefacts such as shields, breastplates and mosaics. There are also numerous coins that bear not only the imagery of Perseus holding the head of Medusa, but also the head in its own right. Today, the most well-known image of Medusa’s head belongs perhaps to the logo of the Italian fashion company, Versace, indicating that the myths of the ancient world are still alive and with us in the modern world.’ 14th June 2018

It’s a bit deep all this myth stuff and also very involving.


Pegasus emerges from the body of Medusa. ‘The Perseus Series: The Death of Medusa I’ by Edward Burne-Jones, c. 1876-79
Gouache on paper on canvas
Southampton Art Gallery– accessed 14th June 2018

After all these years I never noticed that the Versace logo was a imagining of Medusa. Has she been used as she is cold and cool and you turn to stone in a cool way? Like Blue Steel?

Versace Medusa Logo 14th June 2018

Visit HERE and there is an explanation of the Versace logo and that Versace was fascinated with Greek mythology and used Medusa as she typifies ‘sheer authority, attractiveness and fatal fascination.’

_fronts_N-6487-00-000016-WZ-PYR– accessed 14th June 2018
Luca Giordano , Perseus turning Phineas and his Followers to Stone, early 1680s.

In this painting we can see quite a lot of bother going on here. We see Perseus holding the freshly beheaded Medusa and holding her up. Medusa looks terrifying and Perseus knows not to look as he holds her for fear he will be turned to stone also. We see Phineas leaning towards him to throw a spear but cannot as he is turning into stone. The colour of this can be seen underneath Medusa and  by the stances of everybody in the room except for Perseus.

The next image I found to research was Perseus and Phineas, 1597,  by Annibale Carracci.


Perseus and Phineas, 1597, Annibale Carracci.– accessed 14th June 2018

Here we see differences in colour and clothing for a start. The Giordano image shows the remnants of an event or feast but the Carracci looks like Perseus has walked into a bedroom and has been angrily followed. Giordanos version of Perseus shows him in a blue suit with blonde curly hair, a feather in his hat and brown tan boots. Carraccis image shows a perfect portrait of a true demigod, big and strong with a helmet of gold, a shawl, sandals and no pants. His whole body is very muscly and precedes his reputation. He also carries a big sword for protection as all those around him are turned into grey stone, caught in whatever moment they were in. Medusa looks very grey in the Carracci with not many of her snakes showing.

Giordanos image shows a lot more clothing and coloured fabrics which gives it a bit more decadence than Carraccis. Perseus seems smaller and the crowd angrier. Carraccis image shows a lot more flesh and background images of people covering their eyes whilst Giordanos is full action with men clambering over to Perseus but also turning the familiar grey stone colour.

I think both artists have treated the pictures differently but obviously in their own style and interpretation.

Giordanos image shows a white mist descending over the crowd as if the eyes of Medusa create a spell once she is exposed. Carraccis show certain members already turned to stone with others trying to shield and main guards frozen with their spears. I think I prefer Carraccis myself as it shows Perseus as who he was seen, as a powerful demigod of strength. Giordanos is a bit fancy and doesn’t really give me the Greek god message. It is more of a fight scene than a showing of the myth and events.

All websites and links accessed 14th June 2018.

Visits- Slaves of Fashion-The Singh Twins-Liverpool Walker Art Gallery.

Back in April I visited The Walker Art Gallery to see Slaves of Fashion: New Works by The Singh Twins. I hadn’t seen their work before but it was advertised on North West Tonight and I was transfixed by the colours so off I went.

From The Walker Art Gallery website;

‘Slaves of Fashion: New Works by The Singh Twins. explored the history of Indian textiles, Empire, enslavement and luxury consumerism, and the contemporary relevance of these issues in the world today.

Focusing on the relationship between Britain and India, hidden details of Europe’s colonial past and its legacies were uncovered, including current debates around ethical trade and responsible consumerism.  

The exhibition showcased almost 20 new artworks by the internationally renowned artists. Primarily known for their entirely hand-painted work in the Indian miniature tradition, The Singh Twins’ new work combined traditional hand-painting techniques with digitally created imagery. The series included 11 digital fabric artworks displayed on light boxes, with each one highlighting a different theme relating to India’s textile industry. A further nine paper artworks explored the relationship between trade, conflict and consumerism in an age of Empire and the modern-day.

Also included in the exhibition were 40 highlights from over 100 objects across National Museums Liverpool’s collection, which inspired the exhibition.

This exhibition was a collaboration between National Museums Liverpool, The Singh Twins and Professor Kate Marsh, University of Liverpool.’ 14th July 2018.

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The panels were illuminated by light boxes on the wall and the colours were so vibrant and intricate it took a lot of looking to spot everything.

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Ancient Roots- The wonder that was India-The Singh Twins 2017.

This figure in the piece is Hatshepsut, Queen of Egypt. This female pharaoh was ruler of Egypt for 22 years. The mythology of cotton throughout the centuries I found very interesting. There is a book called ‘The Book of Marvels and Travels of Sir John Mandeville’ which was written in the 14th century. It says that cotton was an unknown item to Europeans and at this time people thought that lambs grew on a tree called the ‘magical cotton tree’ and that they were the making and source of cotton. I quite like this story. As if each time the tree flowers a little lamb jumps down and goes and has something to eat.


Cotton plant as imagined and drawn by John Mandeville.– accessed 14th July 2018.

“There grew there [India] a wonderful tree which bore tiny lambs on the endes of its branches. These branches were so pliable that they bent down to allow the lambs to feed when they are hungrie.”.

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Coromandel- Sugar and Spice, Not so Nice-The Singh Twins 2017.

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Chintz-The Price of Luxury-The Singh Twins 2017.

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The Colossus of Woes. The Singh Twins-2017.

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Partition politics : Business as usual. The Singh Twins 2017.

Partition and the British Empire was a big theme throughout the exhibition and also the way cotton and fabric has been used and traded over time. It was fascinating to read about as I will be honest I know very little about it except for things I have seen on television or read in history books. Once I had got home I read up some more and THIS is very interesting from The Singh Twins talking about appropriation of British and Asian culture within the UK and THIS series from the BBC about the last days before partition  is also very good.

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‘Iris’ From Georg Dionysius Ehrets Deliciae Botanicae-1732.

Georg Ehret was one of the finest botanical artists of 18th century Europe. His book of flower paintings inspired The Singh Twins who researched the meaning of flowers throughout the Slaves of Fashion series.

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The exhibition has now finished at The Walker Art Gallery but you still see it at Wolverhampton Art Gallery from the 21st July -16th September 2018.

You can read the following links below to find out lots more or click on any highlighted throughout.

The Singh Twins website-

About the exhibition-

Review from Art In Liverpool-

The Singh Twins favourite piece in the exhibition –

All links accessed between 14th and 16th July 2018.